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16 September 2013 Optimal irradiance for sintering of inkjet-printed Ag electrodes with a 532nm CW laser
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Industrial solar cell fabrication generally adopts printing process to deposit the front electrodes, which needs additional heat treatment after printing to enhance electrical conductivity. As a heating method, laser irradiation draws attention not only because of its special selectivity, but also because of its intense heating to achieve high electric conductivity which is essential to reduce ohmic loss of solar cells. In this study, variation of electric conductivity was examined with laser irradiation having various beam intensity. 532 nm continuous wave (CW) laser was irradiated on inkjet-printed silver lines on glass substrate and electrical resistance was measured in situ during the irradiation. The results demonstrate that electric conductivity varies nonlinearly with laser intensity, having minimum specific resistance of 4.1 x 10-8 Ωm at 529 W/cm2 irradiation. The results is interesting because the specific resistance achieved by the present laser irradiation was about 1.8 times lower than the best value obtainable by oven heating, even though it was still higher by 2.5 times than that of bulk silver. It is also demonstrated that the irradiation time, needed to finish sintering process, decreases with laser intensity. The numerical simulation of laser heating showed that the optimal heating temperature could be as high as 300 oC for laser sintering, while it was limited to 250 oC for oven sintering. The nonlinear response of sintering with heating intensity was discussed, based on the results of FESEM images and XRD analysis.
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Yoon Jae Moon, Heuiseok Kang, Kyungtae Kang, Jun Young Hwang, and Seung Jae Moon "Optimal irradiance for sintering of inkjet-printed Ag electrodes with a 532nm CW laser", Proc. SPIE 8826, Laser Material Processing for Solar Energy Devices II, 88260A (16 September 2013);

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