19 September 2013 Discrepancies when analyzing and testing high aperture lenses with pupil aberration
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Abstract
Lenses with high numerical apertures can be optimized and manufactured to produce diffraction-limited performance across an entire field-of-view while having significant pupil aberration. Optimization is generally based on root-meansquare (RMS) wavefront error. Most modern optical software correctly takes into account the need for chief-ray aiming but can still model such systems differently from one another, including the reporting of RMS values. These differences can affect the nominal performance, both on- and off-axis, and can therefore complicate technical discussions and have an effect on the design and tolerancing of the lens. Understanding the functions of the lens in the application is important. Test results from an interferometer can lead to further discrepancies compared to the actual system function. These differences are explored in the case of a high numerical aperture objective lens. Some reasons for these differences are examined.
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Joseph R. Mulley, "Discrepancies when analyzing and testing high aperture lenses with pupil aberration", Proc. SPIE 8844, Optical System Alignment, Tolerancing, and Verification VII, 88440E (19 September 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2023326; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2023326
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