The Advanced Photon Source is currently developing a suite of new hard x-ray beamlines, aimed primarily at the study
of materials and devices under real conditions. One of the flagship beamlines of the APS Upgrade is the In-Situ
Nanoprobe beamline (ISN beamline), which will provide in-situ and operando characterization of advanced energy
materials and devices under change of temperature and gases, under applied fields, in 3D.
The ISN beamline is designed to deliver spatially coherent x-rays with photon energies between 4 keV and 30 keV to the
ISN instrument. As an x-ray source, a revolver-type undulator with two interchangeable magnetic structures,
optimized to provide high brilliance throughout the range of photon energies of 4 keV – 30 keV, will be used. The
ISN instrument will provide a smallest hard x-ray spot of 20 nm using diffractive optics, with sensitivity to sub-10
nm sample structures using coherent diffraction. Using nanofocusing mirrors in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry, the ISN
will also provide a focus of 50 nm with a flux of 8·1011 Photons/s at a photon energy of 10 keV, several orders of
magnitude larger than what is currently available. This will allow imaging of trace amounts of most elements in the
periodic table, with a sensitivity to well below 100 atoms for most metals in thin samples. It will also enable nanospectroscopic
studies of the chemical state of most materials relevant to energy science. The ISN beamline will be
primarily used to study inorganic and organic photovoltaic systems, advanced batteries and fuel cells, nanoelectronics devices, and materials and systems diesigned to reduce the environmental impact of combustion.