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23 September 2013 Space view issues for hyperspectral sounders
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Abstract
The expectation for climate quality measurements from hyperspectral sounders is absolute calibration accuracy at the 100 mK level and stability at the < 40 mK/decade level. The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS)1, Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) hyperspectral sounders currently in orbit have been shown to agree well over most of their brightness temperature range. Some larger discrepancies are seen, however, at the coldest scene temperatures, such as those seen in Antarctic winter and deep convective clouds. A key limiting factor for the calibrated scene radiance accuracy for cold scenes is how well the effective radiance of the cold space view pertains to the scene views. The spaceview signal is composed of external sources and instrument thermal emission at about 270 K from the scan mirror, external baffles, etc. Any difference in any of these contributions between spaceviews and scene views will impact the absolute calibration accuracy, and the impact can be critical for cold scenes. Any change over time in these will show up as an apparent trend in calibrated radiances. We use AIRS data to investigate the validity of the spaceview assumption in view of the 100 mK accuracy and 40 mK/decade trend expectations. We show that the space views used for the cold calibration point for AIRS v5 Level-1B products meet these standards except under special circumstances and that AIRS v6 Level-1B products will meet them under all circumstances. This analysis also shows the value of having multiple distinct space views to give operational redundancy and analytic data, and that reaching climate quality requires continuing monitoring of aging instruments and adjustment of calibration.
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Evan M. Manning, Hartmut H. Aumann, and Steven E. Broberg "Space view issues for hyperspectral sounders", Proc. SPIE 8866, Earth Observing Systems XVIII, 88660V (23 September 2013); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2024552
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