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23 September 2013 Fabrication of low straylight holographic gratings for space applications
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The main challenges of fabricating diffraction gratings for use in earth monitoring spectrometers are given by the requirements for low stray light, high diffraction efficiency and a low polarization sensitivity. Furthermore the use in space also requires a high environmental stability of these gratings. We found that holography in combination with ion beam plasma etching provides a way to obtain monolithic, robust fused silica gratings which are able to meet the above mentioned requirements for space applications. Holography accompanied by plasma etching allows the fabrication of a wide range of different grating profiles to optimize the efficiency including the polarization behavior according to a wealth of applications. Typical profile shapes feasible are blazed gratings, sinusoidal profiles and binary profiles and this allows to tailor the efficiency and polarization requirements exactly to the spectral range of the special application. Holographic gratings can be fabricated on plane and also on curved substrates as core components of imaging spectrometers. In this paper we present our grating fabrication flow for the example of plane blazed gratings and we relate the efficiency and stray light measurement results to certain steps of the process. The holographic setup was optimized to minimize stray light and ghosting recorded by the photoresist during the exposure. Low wave front deviations require the use of highly accurate grating substrates and high precision optics in the holographic exposure.
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Reinhard Steiner, Alexander Pesch, Lars H. Erdmann, Matthias Burkhardt, Alexandre Gatto, Robert Wipf, Torsten Diehl, H. J. P. Vink, and B.G. van den Bosch "Fabrication of low straylight holographic gratings for space applications", Proc. SPIE 8870, Imaging Spectrometry XVIII, 88700H (23 September 2013);

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