The current era of semiconductor research is heavily dependent on the incorporation of new materials into structures measured in nanometers. We require complexity at not only the functional level but complexity in how these functions work together to make better products. The mask set is the critical element in managing that complexity in a cost effective manner but mask making today is challenged to key up with demands. For the next decade, these trends are expected to continue and will suffice to improve the traditional metrics of performance-power and costs. There are many choices to be made but a rich future lies ahead of us.