9 September 2013 Studying the effects of modified surface chemistry on chrome migration in binary photomasks
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Migration of the Cr/CrxOy film in binary photomasks during use in 193nm photolithography has been observed for some time in the semiconductor industry. This phenomenon leads to a shift in the reticle critical dimensions (CDs) that worsen with increased exposure eventually resulting in wafer yield loss. This paper studies the impact of varying annealing conditions on the CrxOy species on the surface of the mask. Further, we examined the effect of a surface condition with maximized Cr2O3 content on the 193nm-induced chrome migration phenomenon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the composition of the Cr/CrxOy film. A 193nm accelerated exposure test bench was used to induce film migration in samples of varying surface chemistry.
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Christopher Kossow, Christopher Kossow, Peter Kirlin, Peter Kirlin, Michael Green, Michael Green, "Studying the effects of modified surface chemistry on chrome migration in binary photomasks", Proc. SPIE 8880, Photomask Technology 2013, 88800Z (9 September 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2025172; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2025172

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