16 October 2013 Multisensor characterization of subsurface structures in a desert plain area in Egypt with implications for groundwater exploration
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A desert plain in Egypt is being investigated to develop new techniques of multisensor data integration for groundwater exploration. A combination of multispectral, thermal and microwave data (ASTER and PALSAR) and supported by ground measurements (GPR, field spectroradiometry and magnetometry) were used to investigate surface sediment characteristics of the El-Gallaba Plain area, NW of Aswan. This desert plain once hosted an ancestral river system long before the Nile even existed. Nowadays the fluvial deposits are largely covered by Aeolian and gravelly sands and thus only detectible with radar and thermal images. Results show two broad strips of thermal cooling anomalies arranged in a linear fashion and diagonally crossing the alluvial basin. Spectral signatures collected along the linear land surface temperature (LST) anomalies show generally higher reflectance values (higher albedo) than the surrounding sediments. Both, the cooler LST and higher albedo, suggest that the surface sediments within the anomaly strips have lower emissivity values (low heat storage capacity). Furthermore, the homogeneity of these sediments was measured with a ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 250 and 100 MHz shielded antenna. The 12 GPR profiles across the LST anomalies confirmed that the near-surface sediments (up to 10 m depth) consist of thin horizontal layers of sandstone with very low gravel content. They show very different textural and compositional characteristics with respect to the surrounding areas suggesting a different depositional environment. Thus 12 magnetic profiles with 1.5 km average length were acquired across the LST anomalies to investigate deep seated structures. The results confirmed the existence of graben-like structures with a maximum depth to the basement of 150 m and shallower depths toward the edges of the LST anomalies. Consequently, these structurally controlled basins could be promising areas for ground water accumulation and exploration in the El-Gallaba Plain of the Western Desert in Egypt.
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Magaly Koch, Magaly Koch, Ahmed Gaber, Ahmed Gaber, Mohamed H. Geriesh, Mohamed H. Geriesh, El-Sayed Zaghloul, El-Sayed Zaghloul, Sayed M. Arafat, Sayed M. Arafat, Mostafa AbuBakr, Mostafa AbuBakr, "Multisensor characterization of subsurface structures in a desert plain area in Egypt with implications for groundwater exploration", Proc. SPIE 8887, Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XV, 888712 (16 October 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2029086; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2029086


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