15 October 2013 Questions about using of atmospheric attenuation calculating the nominal ocular hazard distance
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Abstract
The distance where risk for injuries or damage of an eye, when laser irradiance level exceeded the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE), is equal to the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD). The common way calculating the NOHD abandons the use of atmospheric attenuation as a lowering the laser safety ranges in the civil society. The NOHD for a typical designator laser (using e.g. Nd:YAG laser) with small divergence can be several tens of kilometers. One way handling those risk distances, which might be too long for ordinary firing ranges or embargoed areas, are probabilistic calculations of danger and including the atmospheric attenuation. For such long laser beam path the atmospheric transmission attenuation will be significant. The suppression of the risk distance can be substantial even for moderate extinctions coefficient if the atmospheric attenuation is included within the calculations of Ocular Hazard Distance (OHD). NOHD is compared to the OHD in a attempt to get an impression of the reduction of the distance as function of visibility or the extinction coefficient. A simple simulation shows that OHD might be reduced by 60% - 70% compared to NOHD at a visibility of 50 km. The contribution also discusses the use of Lambert W function compared to other methods accounting for atmospheric attenuation in laser safety range calculations.
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K. Ove S. Gustafsson, K. Ove S. Gustafsson, } "Questions about using of atmospheric attenuation calculating the nominal ocular hazard distance", Proc. SPIE 8897, Electro-Optical Remote Sensing, Photonic Technologies, and Applications VII; and Military Applications in Hyperspectral Imaging and High Spatial Resolution Sensing, 88970M (15 October 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2029383; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2029383
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