Based on the actual working environment of pulse LD dual-end pumped Tm:YAG crystal, time-dependent temperature field analytical expression and the time-varying thermal focal length are deduced by the integral transform method. Additionally, the effects of pump power, repetition frequency and duty ratio on axial transient temperature distribution and time-varying thermal focal length of pulse LD dual-end pumped Tm:YAG rod are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the temperature distribution reaches steady state respectively by 11, 14, 15 pulses under pump power of 30W, 35W and 40W, respectively, while the frequency is 100Hz and the duty ratio is 50%. Under the condition mentioned above, the temperature of the crystal rod on both ends of the center arrives 34.7°C, 37.5°C, 40.3°C, which is 1.8°C, 2.1°C, 2.4°C higher than the center of rod. And the thermal focal length is in the range of 31.5-41.5cm, 26.5-34.6cm, 22.9-29.7cm, respectively. When pump energy is 100mJ, frequency at 110Hz, 120 Hz, 130Hz and duty ratio at 55%, 60%, 65%, respectively, the temperature distribution reaches steady state respectively by 13, 15, 16 pulses, and the temperature of the rod on both ends of the center respectively arrives 30.0°C, 30.9°C, 31.8°C, which is 1.3°C, 1.4°C, 1.5°C higher than the center of rod, and thermal focal length is in the range 46.4-58.8cm, 42.7-51.6cm, 39.5-45.9cm, respectively. Namely, as the increase of the pulses number, the distribution of the temperature and the thermal focal length in crystal rod appear jagged and eventually get to the periodic distributions. With the increase of the pump power, repetition frequency and duty ratio, the temperature difference between the crystal rod on both ends of the center and the center of rod is increasing, while time-varying thermal focal length gradually becomes shorter and the fluctuation range is smaller until it reaches steady state. The results provide theoretical basis for heating compensation and cavity design of pulsed thulium doped lasers.