A mock ray tracing procedure for modeling complex optical systems with "blackbox" lens modules is described. The procedure permits the inclusion of third order aberrations, as well as axial and lateral chromatic errors. Examples of f-theta scanning lens simulation and zoom lens design with lens modules are given, using the CODE V lens design program.
Thomas G Kuper,
Matthew P Rimmer,
"Lens Modules In Optical Design", Proc. SPIE 0892, Simulation and Modeling of Optical Systems, (9 June 1988); doi: 10.1117/12.944333; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.944333