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14 January 2014 The power of the bubble: comparing ultrasonic and laser activated irrigation
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The major problem of irrigation is the fluid motion within the confined geometry of the root canal : efficient dispersion of the liquid is difficult, conventional irrigation is limited due to the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume, vapour lock may limit apical cleaning and disinfection, there is also a stagnation plane beyond the needle tip. The best way to improve irrigant penetration and biofilm removal is achieved by means of the agitation of the fluid. Today ultrasonic activation appears to be the best way to activate and potentiate irrigants among the present-day used means and marketed systems. Another way to activate irrigation solutions is the use of lasers: laser activated irrigation or photon-initiated acoustic streaming have been investigated. Based on present-day research it appears that the efficacy of laser activation (especially with Erbium lasers) can be more efficient thanks to the induction of specific cavitation phenomena and acoustic streaming. Other wavelengths are now explored to be used for laser activated irrigation.
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Roeland J. G. De Moor, Maarten A. Meire, and Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk "The power of the bubble: comparing ultrasonic and laser activated irrigation", Proc. SPIE 8925, Fifth International Conference on Lasers in Medicine: Biotechnologies Integrated in Daily Medicine, 892504 (14 January 2014);

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