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14 April 2014 Comparison of singlet oxygen threshold dose for PDT
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Macroscopic modeling of singlet oxygen (1O2) is of particular interest because it is the major cytotoxic agent causing biological effects for type II photosensitizers during PDT. We have developed a macroscopic model to calculate reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2]rx for PDT. An in-vivo RIF tumor mouse model is used to correlate the necrosis depth to the calculation based on explicit PDT dosimetry of light fluence distribution, tissue optical properties, and photosensitizer concentrations. Inputs to the model include 4 photosensitizer specific photochemical parameters along with the apparent singlet oxygen threshold concentration. Photosensitizer specific model parameters are determined for several type II photosensitizers (Photofrin, BPD, and HPPH). The singlet oxygen threshold concentration is approximately 0.41 - 0.56 mM for all three photosensitizers studied, assuming that the fraction of singlet oxygen generated that interacts with the cell is (f = 1). In comparison, value derived from other in-vivo mice studies is 0.4 mM for mTHPC. However, the singlet oxygen threshold doses were reported to be 7.9 and 12.1 mM for a multicell in-vitro EMT6/Ro spheroid model for mTHPC and Photofrin PDT, respectively. The sensitivity of threshold singlet oxygen dose for our experiment is examined. The possible influence of vascular vs. apoptotic cell killing mechanism on the singlet oxygen threshold dose is discussed using the BPD with different drug-light intervals 3 hrs vs. 15 min. The observed discrepancies between different experiments warrant further investigation to explain the cause of the difference.
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Timothy C. Zhu, Baochang Liu, Michele M. Kim, Dayton McMillan, Xing Liang, Jarod C. Finlay, and Theresa M. Busch "Comparison of singlet oxygen threshold dose for PDT", Proc. SPIE 8931, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy XXIII, 89310I (14 April 2014);

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