18 February 2014 Photo-excitation of electrons in cytochrome c oxidase as a theory of the mechanism of the increase of ATP production in mitochondria by laser therapy
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Proceedings Volume 8932, Mechanisms for Low-Light Therapy IX; 893204 (2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2037141
Event: SPIE BiOS, 2014, San Francisco, California, United States
Abstract
The hypothesis explains the molecular basis for restoring mitochondrial function by laser therapy. It also explains how laser therapy reverses both excessive oxidation (lack of NADH/FADH2) and excessive reduction (lack of O2) states of cytochrome c oxidase complex. It is proposed that photons interact with heme molecules of cytochrome c oxidase. A molecule of heme contains a porphyrin ring and an atom of iron in the center. The iron atom (Fe) can switch oxidation states back and forth between ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) by accepting or releasing an electron. The porphyrin ring is a complex aromatic molecule that has 26 pi electrons which are “delocalized”, spinning in the carbon rings creating a resonating electromagnetic cloud. Photons with similar wavelengths are absorbed by the cloud increasing its energy. The energy is then passed on to the centrally located atom of iron existing in a reduced state (Fe2+). The electrons on the orbits of the iron atom accept this electromagnetic energy, and change orbitals to a higher energetic level. If the energy is sufficient, electrons leave the atom entirely. If this occurs, Fe2+ become oxidized to Fe3+ releasing electrons, thus restoring electron flow and the production of ATP. At the same time, electrons freed from complex IV may have sufficient energy to be picked by NAD+/FADH and re-enter the chain at the complex I or II amplifying the flow of electrons.
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Andrzej Zielke, Andrzej Zielke, } "Photo-excitation of electrons in cytochrome c oxidase as a theory of the mechanism of the increase of ATP production in mitochondria by laser therapy", Proc. SPIE 8932, Mechanisms for Low-Light Therapy IX, 893204 (18 February 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2037141; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2037141
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