Concurrent fNIRS/fMRI recordings represent multiple, simultaneously active, regionally overlapping
neural hemodynamic responses. In this study, we propose a novel parallel framework for the
spatiotemporal fNIRS/fMRI fusion to address the issues due to the overlapping nature of these responses.
The developed fusion techniques employ the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to recover the time
courses and spatial mapping components from fNIRS and fMRI separately. Then the correlated
components from each imaging modality are combined concurrently in the spatial and temporal domain
for fMRI-guided fNIRS and fNIRS aided fMRI.