Melanoma, a malignant tumor of melanocytes, is the most serious type of skin cancer in the world. It accounts for about 80% of deaths of all skin cancer. For cancer detection, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serve as a marker for metastasis development, cancer recurrence, and therapeutic efficacy. Melanoma tumor cells have high content of melanin, which has high light absorption and can serve as endogenous biomarker for CTC detection without labeling. Here, we have developed an in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) to monitor the metastatic process of melanoma cancer by counting CTCs of melanoma tumor bearing mice in vivo. To test in vivo PAFC’s capability of detecting melanoma cancer, we have constructed a melanoma tumor model by subcutaneous inoculation of highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10. In order to effectively distinguish the targeting PA signals from background noise, we have used the algorithm of Wavelet denoising method to reduce the background noise. The in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has shown a great potential for detecting circulating tumor cells quantitatively in the blood stream. Compared with fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC), PAFC technique can be used for in vivo, label-free, and noninvasive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs).