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20 February 2014 All-optical signal regeneration of advanced modulation formats
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With growing demand on transmission capacity, spectral-efficient multilevel modulation formats such as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) become of great interest. One of their weaknesses is high sensitivity to noise accumulation, especially in long-haul transmission systems. Our investigations have shown the possibility of all-optical regeneration of multiple amplitude and phase states. Processing of amplitude noise in several amplitude states is based on periodicity of interference conditions in modified nonlinear fiber Sagnac interferometers. Their staircase-like power transfer characteristic can be used for phase-preserving amplitude regeneration of multiple amplitude states. Processing of QAM with up to three non-zero amplitude states, e.g. 16QAM, has been demonstrated in numerical simulations. Furthermore, simultaneous amplitude regeneration of a star-8QAM format with two amplitude states was performed experimentally. Recently, it has also been shown that phase-sensitive amplification for multiple phase states can be realized in fiber optical parametric amplifiers using four-wave mixing (FWM) with a high-order idler. Our numerical simulations and experimental results for star-8QAM revealed that with some modifications, this approach can be used not only for reduction of phase noise in multilevel phase-shift keying but also for signals with multiple amplitude states. The transmission improvement using a cascade of these two regenerator types has been demonstrated in numerical simulations and experiments. Numerical investigations confirm also the possibility to combine both approaches in a single device by using the highly nonlinear fiber in the Sagnac interferometer loop simultaneously for phase-sensitive amplification in one propagation direction.
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Tobias Roethlingshoefer, Thomas Richter, Birgit Stiller, Georgy Onishchukov, Colja Schubert, Bernhard Schmauss, and Gerd Leuchs "All-optical signal regeneration of advanced modulation formats", Proc. SPIE 8964, Nonlinear Frequency Generation and Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Applications XIII, 89640L (20 February 2014);

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