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6 March 2014 Structural analysis of direct laser written waveguides
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We perform structural characterisation of direct laser write (DLW) waveguides. Quantitative phase microscopy, based on solution of the transfer of intensity equation, is used to measure the cumulative refractive index change through a waveguide perpendicular to its axis. Results are compared with interferometry, cross-sectional measurements using third harmonic microscopy, and analysis of the near-field image of the mode propagating in the waveguide. We show that in many situations, notably in the presence of depth dependent spherical aberrations, the cross-section for DLW waveguides may not be assumed symmetric about the waveguide axis. This is particularly important when fabricating at depths greater than 2 mm in fused silica. Therefore additional measurements are required to fully characterise the refractive index profile.
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P. S. Salter, A. Jesacher, L. Huang, X. Liu, M. Baum, I. Alexeev, M. Schmidt, and M. J. Booth "Structural analysis of direct laser written waveguides", Proc. SPIE 8968, Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing VIII, 896803 (6 March 2014);

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