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7 March 2014 Plasmonic nanobubbles for target cell-specific gene and drug delivery and multifunctional processing of heterogeneous cell systems
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Cell and gene cancer therapies require ex vivo cell processing of human grafts. Such processing requires at least three steps – cell enrichment, cell separation (destruction), and gene transfer – each of which requires the use of a separate technology. While these technologies may be satisfactory for research use, they are of limited usefulness in the clinical treatment setting because they have a low processing rate, as well as a low transfection and separation efficacy and specificity in heterogeneous human grafts. Most problematic, because current technologies are administered in multiple steps – rather than in a single, multifunctional, and simultaneous procedure – they lengthen treatment process and introduce an unnecessary level of complexity, labor, and resources into clinical treatment; all these limitations result in high losses of valuable cells. We report a universal, high-throughput, and multifunctional technology that simultaneously (1) inject free external cargo in target cells, (2) destroys unwanted cells, and (3) preserve valuable non-target cells in heterogeneous grafts. Each of these functions has single target cell specificity in heterogeneous cell system, processing rate > 45 mln cell/min, injection efficacy 90% under 96% viability of the injected cells, target cell destruction efficacy > 99%, viability of not-target cells >99% The developed technology employs novel cellular agents, called plasmonic nanobubbles (PNBs). PNBs are not particles, but transient, intracellular events, a vapor nanobubbles that expand and collapse in mere nanoseconds under optical excitation of gold nanoparticles with short picosecond laser pulses. PNBs of different, cell-specific, size (1) inject free external cargo with small PNBs, (2) Destroy other target cells mechanically with large PNBs and (3) Preserve non-target cells. The multi-functionality, precision, and high throughput of all-in-one PNB technology will tremendously impact cell and gene therapies and other clinical applications that depend on ex vivo processing of heterogeneous cell systems.
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Ekaterina Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Leslie E. Huye, Malcolm K. Brenner, and Dmitri O. Lapotko "Plasmonic nanobubbles for target cell-specific gene and drug delivery and multifunctional processing of heterogeneous cell systems", Proc. SPIE 8972, Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XIV, 897206 (7 March 2014);

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