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7 March 2014 Direct-write diffracting tubular optical components using femtosecond lasers
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Over the last decade, femtosecond lasers have been used extensively for the fabrication of optical elements via direct writing and in combination with chemical etching. These processes have been an enabling technology for manufacturing a variety of devices such as waveguides, fluidic channels, and mechanical components. Here, we present high quality micro-scale optical components buried inside various glass substrates such as soda-lime glass or fused silica. These components consist of high-precision, simple patterns with tubular shapes. Typical diameters range from a few microns to one hundred microns. With the aid of high-bandwidth, high acceleration flexure stages, we achieve highly symmetric pattern geometries, which are particularly important for achieving homogeneous stress distribution within the substrate. We model the optical properties of these structures using beam propagation simulation techniques and experimentally demonstrate that such components can be used as cost-effective, low-numerical aperture lenses. Additionally, we investigate their capability for studying the stress-distribution induced by the laser-affected zones and possible related densification effects.
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Ben McMillen and Yves Bellouard "Direct-write diffracting tubular optical components using femtosecond lasers", Proc. SPIE 8972, Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XIV, 89720Z (7 March 2014);

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