7 March 2014 One step lithography-less silicon nanomanufacturing for low cost high-efficiency solar cell production
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Abstract
To improve light absorption, previously various antireflection material layers were created on solar wafer surface including multilayer dielectric film, nanoparticle sludges, microtextures, noble metal plasmonic nanoparticles and 3D silicon nanostructure arrays. All of these approaches involve nanoscale prepatterning, surface-area-sensitive assembly processes or extreme fabrication conditions; therefore, they are often limited by the associated high cost and low yield as well as the consequent industry incompatibility. In comparison, our nanomanufacturing, an unique synchronized and simultaneous top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication approach called simultaneous plasma enhanced reactive ion synthesis and etching (SPERISE), offers a better antireflection solution along with the potential to increase p-n junction surface area. High density and high aspect ratio anechoic nanocone arrays are repeatedly and reliably created on the entire surface of single and poly crystalline silicon wafers as well as amorphous silicon thin films within 5 minutes under room temperature. The nanocone surface had lower than 5% reflection over the entire solar spectrum and a desirable omnidirectional absorption property. Using the nanotextured solar wafer, a 156mm × 156mm 18.1%-efficient black silicon solar cell was fabricated, which was an 18.3% enhancement over the cell fabricated by standard industrial processes. This process also reduces silicon loss during the texturing step and enables tighter process control by creating more uniform surface structures. Considering all the above advantages, the demonstrated nanomanufacturing process can be readily translated into current industrial silicon solar cell fabrication lines to replace the costly and ineffective wet chemical texturing and antireflective coatings.
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Yi Chen, Yi Chen, Logan Liu, Logan Liu, } "One step lithography-less silicon nanomanufacturing for low cost high-efficiency solar cell production", Proc. SPIE 8974, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics VII, 89740U (7 March 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2041158; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2041158
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