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7 March 2014 Plasmonic enhancement and losses in light-emitting quantum-well structures incorporating metallic gratings
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The unique properties of surface plasmons (SPs) are expected to provide a great improvement of light extraction in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Surface plasmon modes are characterized by a high local density of states, and if scattered by gratings, significantly high emission enhancement is achievable. We investigate the physical role of SPs in improving light extraction from GaN quantum-well (QW) light-emitting structures incorporating metallic grating, by using first-principle theory based on Maxwell's equations and fluctuational electrodynamics. We demonstrate how careful nano-engineering, specifically by choosing the right nano-grating period, can reduce absorption losses and provide optimal enhancement; in the investigated test geometries, light extraction is increased by a factor of four, with the plasmonic losses being reduced from ~ 90% to below ~ 60% thanks to the metallic grating. While the results confirm a strong enhancement and reduction in the plasmonic losses, the overall losses still represent a significant obstacle for plasmonic-enhanced emission. With further optimization of the structure, the grating shapes and the materials, a much larger enhancement and lower losses are expected to be possible.
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Toufik Sadi, Jani Oksanen, and Jukka Tulkki "Plasmonic enhancement and losses in light-emitting quantum-well structures incorporating metallic gratings", Proc. SPIE 8980, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXII, 89800Z (7 March 2014);

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