31 January 2014 Time-resolved optical spectrometer based on a monolithic array of high-precision TDCs and SPADs
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Abstract
We present a compact time-resolved spectrometer suitable for optical spectroscopy from 400 nm to 1 μm wavelengths. The detector consists of a monolithic array of 16 high-precision Time-to-Digital Converters (TDC) and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD). The instrument has 10 ps resolution and reaches 70 ps (FWHM) timing precision over a 160 ns full-scale range with a Differential Non-Linearity (DNL) better than 1.5 % LSB. The core of the spectrometer is the application-specific integrated chip composed of 16 pixels with 250 μm pitch, containing a 20 μm diameter SPAD and an independent TDC each, fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. In front of this array a monochromator is used to focus different wavelengths into different pixels. The spectrometer has been used for fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy: 5 nm spectral resolution over an 80 nm bandwidth is achieved. Lifetime spectroscopy of Nile blue is demonstrated.
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Davide Tamborini, Bojan Markovic, Laura Di Sieno, Davide Contini, Andrea Bassi, Simone Tisa, Alberto Tosi, Franco Zappa, "Time-resolved optical spectrometer based on a monolithic array of high-precision TDCs and SPADs", Proc. SPIE 8993, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XI, 89932I (31 January 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2040519; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2040519
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