27 February 2014 Ammonothermal bulk GaN substrates for LEDs
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Abstract
Soraa has developed a novel ammonothermal approach for growth of high quality, true bulk GaN crystals at a greatly reduced cost. Soraa’s patented approach, known as SCoRA (Scalable Compact Rapid Ammonothermal) utilizes internal heating to circumvent the material-property limitations of conventional ammonothermal reactors. The SCoRA reactor has capability for temperatures and pressures greater than 650 °C and 500 MPa, respectively, enabling higher growth rates than conventional ammonothermal techniques, yet is less expensive and more scalable than conventional autoclaves fabricated from nickel-based superalloys. SCoRA GaN growth has been performed on c-plane and m-plane seed crystals with diameters between 5 mm and 2" to thicknesses of 0.5-4 mm. The highest growth rates are greater than 40 μm/h and rates in the 10-30 μm/h range are routinely observed. These values are significantly larger than those achieved by conventional ammonothermal GaN growth and are sufficient for a cost-effective manufacturing process. Two-inch diameter, crack-free, free-standing, n-type bulk GaN crystals have been grown. The crystals have been characterized by a range of techniques, including x-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL), optical spectroscopy, and capacitance-voltage measurements. The crystallinity of the grown crystals is very good, with FWHM values of 15-80 arc-sec and average dislocation densities below 5 x 105 cm-2.
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W. Jiang, W. Jiang, D. Ehrentraut, D. Ehrentraut, D. S. Kamber, D. S. Kamber, B. C. Downey, B. C. Downey, J. Cook, J. Cook, M. Grundmann, M. Grundmann, R. T. Pakalapati, R. T. Pakalapati, H. Yoo, H. Yoo, M. P. D'Evelyn, M. P. D'Evelyn, } "Ammonothermal bulk GaN substrates for LEDs", Proc. SPIE 9003, Light-Emitting Diodes: Materials, Devices, and Applications for Solid State Lighting XVIII, 900313 (27 February 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2042587; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2042587
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