4 March 2014 Correcting high-density hot pixel defects in digital imagers
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Abstract
Based on our extensive research on in-field defect development in digital imagers, we were able to determine that “Hot Pixels” are the main source of defects and their numbers increase at a nearly constant temporal rate (during the camera’s lifetime) and they are randomly distributed spatially (over the camera sensor). Using dark frame analysis, we concluded that a hot pixel can be characterized by a linear function of the exposure time to describe the defect’s dark response. Assuming that the hot pixel behavior remains constant after formation, we present in this paper a novel method for correcting the damage to images caused by a hot pixel, based on estimating its dark response parameters. We performed experiments on a camera with 28 known hot pixels allowing us to compare our correction algorithm to the conventional correction done by interpolating the four neighbors of the defective pixel. We claim that the correction method used should depend on the severity of the hot pixel, on the exposure time, on the ISO, and on the variability of the pixel’s neighbors in the specific image we are correcting. Furthermore, we discuss our new findings in hot pixel behavior that limit the accuracy of defect correction algorithms.
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Glenn H. Chapman, Glenn H. Chapman, Rohit Thomas, Rohit Thomas, Zahava Koren, Zahava Koren, Israel Koren, Israel Koren, } "Correcting high-density hot pixel defects in digital imagers", Proc. SPIE 9022, Image Sensors and Imaging Systems 2014, 90220G (4 March 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2041388; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2041388
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