19 March 2014 Model predictions for the WAXS signals of healthy and malignant breast duct biopsies
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Abstract
A wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) measurement could potentially be used to determine whether a biopsy of a breast duct is healthy or malignant. A ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) occurs when the epithelial cells lining the wall start to replicate and invade the duct interior. Since cells are composed mainly of water a WAXS signal of DCIS could contain a larger component due to water. A model approximates that a breast duct biopsy consists of connective tissue (c.t.) and cells. For a 2 mm diameter 3.81 mm thick healthy duct biopsy, the volumes in cubic mm are 11.56 c.t. and 0.41 cells whereas 6.64 c.t. and 5.33 cells for DCIS. The differential linear scattering coefficients (μs) for both types of biopsies were calculated using the sum vc.tsc.t. + vcellμscell where v denotes fractional volume. The cell was assumed to be composed of water, lipids (fat), and other atoms associated with RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. The μscell was calculated using the sum 0.771μswater + 0.023μsfat + 0.206μsother. The μs of c.t., water, and fat were available from literature whereas the independent atomic model approximation was used to calculate values for μsother. A WAXS model provided predictions of the number of 6 degree scattered photons Ns for incident 50 kV beams on healthy and malignant ducts. The sum of Ns between 31.5 ≤ E ≤ 45 keV were 1402 and 1529 for respectively the healthy and malignant biopsies. Using Poisson statistics, two Gaussian distributions, and a descision threshold set at their intersection, the false positive and false negative probabilities were 4.7% and 5.0%. This work suggests that DCIS could potentially be diagnosed via energy dispersive WAXS measurements.
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R. J. LeClair, R. J. LeClair, } "Model predictions for the WAXS signals of healthy and malignant breast duct biopsies", Proc. SPIE 9033, Medical Imaging 2014: Physics of Medical Imaging, 903360 (19 March 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2043155; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2043155
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