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12 March 2014 Marker-less respiratory motion modeling using the Microsoft Kinect for Windows
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Patient respiratory motion is a major problem during external beam radiotherapy of the thoracic and abdominal regions due to the associated organ and target motion. In addition, such motion introduces uncertainty in both radiotherapy planning and delivery and may potentially vary between the planning and delivery sessions. The aim of this work is to examine subject-specific external respiratory motion and its associated drift from an assumed average cycle which is the basis for many respiratory motion compensated applications including radiotherapy treatment planning and delivery. External respiratory motion data were acquired from a group of 20 volunteers using a marker-less 3D depth camera, Kinect for Windows. The anterior surface encompassing thoracic and abdominal regions were subject to principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate dominant variations. The first principal component typically describes more than 70% of the motion data variance in the thoracic and abdominal surfaces. Across all of the subjects used in this study, 58% of subjects demonstrate largely abdominal breathing and 33% exhibited largely thoracic dominated breathing. In most cases there is observable drift in respiratory motion during the 300s capture period, which is visually demonstrated using Kernel Density Estimation. This study demonstrates that for this cohort of apparently healthy volunteers, there is significant respiratory motion drift in most cases, in terms of amplitude and relative displacement between the thoracic and abdominal respiratory components. This has implications for the development of effective motion compensation methodology.
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F. Tahavori, M. Alnowami, and K. Wells "Marker-less respiratory motion modeling using the Microsoft Kinect for Windows", Proc. SPIE 9036, Medical Imaging 2014: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 90360K (12 March 2014);

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