When periodic structures are illuminated by a monochromatic continuous light source, the exact images of themselves at
certain distances can be observed in the Fresnel diffraction region, and this is the so-called Talbot effect. The Talbot
effect has attracted more and more attention because of its wide ranging applications in fields which include optical
measurement, optical array illumination, and optical interconnections. Following the rapid development in the techniques
of ultrashort laser, therefore, it is necessary to study behaviors of the Talbot effect under ultrashort laser pulses
illumination. In this paper, the Talbot effect under illuminated by ultrashort laser pulses with complex spectral
distribution has been studied. By using a Michelson interferometer, ultrashort laser pulses with complex spectral
distribution can be generated based on the spectral interference of ultrashort laser pulses. In experiments, the Talbot
images of a grating under illuminated by ultrashort laser pulses with different complex spectral distributions are obtained.
Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. We believed that the behaviors of the Talbot
effect should have potential applications in optical measurement.