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17 April 2014 Correlation study on resist outgassing between EUV and e-beam irradiation
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The carbon contamination growth (CG) on the witness samples by resist outgassing during exposure were evaluated for the model EUV resist samples having different protecting groups for chemical amplification. Four kinds of different protecting groups were chosen to compare the effects of difference in activation energy for de-protection, the molecular size and polarity of de-protected unit on CG. The residual gas analysis (RGA) measurements were also performed for all samples. Those results were compared between EUV irradiation and e-beam irradiation. On the contrary to the original expectation, it was found that the dependence of the activation energy on CG was small. From the results of RGA, it was confirmed that the size of the protecting group does not also simply correlate with the outgassing amount or CG. In the sample with relatively bigger protecting group we found larger outgassing amount than that with smaller protecting group. The smallest outgassing amount and CG were given by the sample which has the polar de-protecting unit. It is indicating that if there is the interaction between the outgassing molecules and the resist film components, the escaping of the molecules from the resist film out to the vacuum is restricted, resulting in the small outgassing and small CG. All of those features were same in EUV and e-beam irradiation.
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Yukiko Kikuchi, Kazuhiro Katayama, Isamu Takagi, Norihiko Sugie, Toshiya Takahashi, Eishi Shiobara, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Soichi Inoue, Takeo Watanabe, Tetsuo Harada, and Hiroo Kinoshita "Correlation study on resist outgassing between EUV and e-beam irradiation", Proc. SPIE 9048, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography V, 90482W (17 April 2014);

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