2 April 2014 Metrology of white light interferometer for TSV processing
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Abstract
3D integration technology offers an alternative to traditional packaging designs. In traditional Moore’s law scaling, features are added to the die, with graphics, memory control and logic coprocessors all integrated onto the silicon chip. TSV (through silicon via) processing utilizes vertical electrical interconnects that provide the shortest possible path to establish an electrical connection from the device side to the backside of a die. This indirectly allows continues “Moore”- like scaling while only affecting the device packaging. White light interferometry (WLI) has been used for the measurement of topography, step height and via depth using its short coherence length. The nanometer level resolution of this technique is ideal for TSV measurements in the high aspect ratio vias. In this work, six white light interferometer measurements for TSV processing are discussed along with the importance of these measurements to TSV processing, namely: 1. Post-TSV etch: depth, top CD (TCD) and bottom CD (BCD) 2. Post-TSV liner BCD 3. Post-TSV barrier seed BCD 4. TSV electro-chemically plated (ECP) copper bump step height 5. Post-annealing bump step height 6. TSV CMP dishing These measurement steps have been implemented in-line for advanced technology node TSV process flows at GLOBALFOUNDRIES. The measurements demonstrate 90% correlation to reference metrology and <0.5% repeatability. Cross section SEM was used as a reference for TSV profile and Cu bump measurements while AFM was used as a reference for dishing measurements.
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Padraig Timoney, Yeong-Uk Ko, Daniel Fisher, Cheng Kuan Lu, Yudesh Ramnath, Alok Vaid, Sarasvathi Thangaraju, Daniel Smith, Himani Kamineni, Dingyou Zhang, Wonwoo Kim, Ramakanth Alapati, Jonathan Peak, Hemant Amin, Holly Edmunson, Joe Race, Brennan Peterson, Tim Johnson, "Metrology of white light interferometer for TSV processing", Proc. SPIE 9050, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXVIII, 90500F (2 April 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2047383; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2047383
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