27 March 2014 Manufacturability considerations for DSA
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Abstract
Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.
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Richard A. Farrell, Erik R. Hosler, Gerard M. Schmid, Ji Xu, Moshe E. Preil, Vinayak Rastogi, Nihar Mohanty, Kaushik Kumar, Michael J. Cicoria, David R. Hetzer, Anton DeVilliers, "Manufacturability considerations for DSA", Proc. SPIE 9051, Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXI, 90510Z (27 March 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2048396; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2048396
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