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31 March 2014 Study of lens heating behavior and thick mask effects with a computational method
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Advances on techniques that enable small technology nodes printing benefit the lithography with cost. For instance, lens heating draws people's attention when the NTD process is applied together with the bright tone mask. And the study of it requires the investigation of many other variables. In this paper we examine individual impact of several closely related process variables to understand the lens heating behavior. Meanwhile, though it is known that the PTD process is less sensitive to the lens heating effect, we do observe mask topography induced best focus shifts among different patterns with small spaces. It is of interest to discover the extent to which the NTD is affected. Thus in this paper we also compared the two processes with respect to the mask topography effect by simulating the best focus shifts of a series of test patterens.
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Ningning Jia, Seung-Hune Yang, Sangwook Kim, and Jungdal Choi "Study of lens heating behavior and thick mask effects with a computational method", Proc. SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII, 905209 (31 March 2014);

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