31 March 2014 Joint optimization of source, mask, and pupil in optical lithography
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Mask topography effects need to be taken into consideration for more advanced resolution enhancement techniques in optical lithography. However, rigorous 3D mask model achieves high accuracy at a large computational cost. This work develops a combined source, mask and pupil optimization (SMPO) approach by taking advantage of the fact that pupil phase manipulation is capable of partially compensating for mask topography effects. We first design the pupil wavefront function by incorporating primary and secondary spherical aberration through the coefficients of the Zernike polynomials, and achieve optimal source-mask pair under the condition of aberrated pupil. Evaluations against conventional source mask optimization (SMO) without incorporating pupil aberrations show that SMPO provides improved performance in terms of pattern fidelity and process window sizes.
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Jia Li, Jia Li, Edmund Y. Lam, Edmund Y. Lam, "Joint optimization of source, mask, and pupil in optical lithography", Proc. SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII, 90520S (31 March 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2045739; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2045739

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