1 July 2014 Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays
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Abstract
Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays (SPICA) transfers image plane coding typically realized in the optical architecture to the digital domain of the focal plane array, thereby minimizing signal-to-noise losses associated with static filters or apertures and inherent diffraction concerns. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing digitalpixel focal plane array (DFPA) devices for many years. In this work, we leverage legacy designs modified with new features to realize a computational imaging array (CIA) with advanced pixel-processing capabilities. We briefly review the use of DFPAs for on-chip background removal and image plane filtering. We focus on two digital readout integrated circuits (DROICS) as CIAs for two-dimensional (2D) transient target tracking and three-dimensional (3D) transient target estimation using per-pixel coded-apertures or flutter shutters. This paper describes two DROICs – a SWIR pixelprocessing imager (SWIR-PPI) and a Visible CIA (VISCIA). SWIR-PPI is a DROIC with a 1 kHz global frame rate with a maximum per-pixel shuttering rate of 100 MHz, such that each pixel can be modulated by a time-varying, pseudorandom, and duo-binary signal (+1,-1,0). Combining per-pixel time-domain coding and processing enables 3D (x,y,t) target estimation with limited loss of spatial resolution. We evaluate structured and pseudo-random encoding strategies and employ linear inversion and non-linear inversion using total-variation minimization to estimate a 3D data cube from a single 2D temporally-encoded measurement. The VISCIA DROIC, while low-resolution, has a 6 kHz global frame rate and simultaneously encodes eight periodic or aperiodic transient target signatures at a maximum rate of 50 MHz using eight 8-bit counters. By transferring pixel-based image plane coding to the DROIC and utilizing sophisticated processing, our CIAs enable on-chip temporal super-resolution.
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Christy Fernandez-Cull, Christy Fernandez-Cull, Brian M. Tyrrell, Brian M. Tyrrell, Richard D'Onofrio, Richard D'Onofrio, Andrew Bolstad, Andrew Bolstad, Joseph Lin, Joseph Lin, Jeffrey W. Little, Jeffrey W. Little, Megan Blackwell, Megan Blackwell, Matthew Renzi, Matthew Renzi, Mike Kelly, Mike Kelly, } "Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays", Proc. SPIE 9070, Infrared Technology and Applications XL, 90703D (1 July 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2057520; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2057520
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