29 May 2014 Development of a wearable microwave bladder monitor for the management and treatment of urinary incontinence
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Abstract
Urinary incontinence is defined as the inability to stop the flow of urine from the bladder. In the US alone, the annual societal cost of incontinence-related care is estimated at 12.6 billion dollars. Clinicians agree that those suffering from urinary incontinence would greatly benefit from a wearable system that could continually monitor the bladder, providing continuous feedback to the patient. While existing ultrasound-based solutions are highly accurate, they are severely limited by form-factor, battery size, cost and ease of use. In this study the authors propose an alternative bladder-state sensing system, based on Ultra Wideband (UWB) Radar. As part of an initial proof-of-concept, the authors developed one of the first dielectrically and anatomically-representative Finite Difference Time Domain models of the pelvis. These models (one male and one female) are derived from Magnetic Resonance images provided by the IT'IS Foundation. These IT'IS models provide the foundation upon which an anatomically-plausible bladder growth model was constructed. The authors employed accurate multi-pole Debye models to simulate the dielectric properties of each of the pelvic tissues. Two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were completed for a range of bladder volumes. Relevant features were extracted from the FDTD-derived signals using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and then classified using a k-Nearest-Neighbour and Support Vector Machine algorithms (incorporating the Leave-one-out cross-validation approach). Additionally the authors investigated the effects of signal fidelity, noise and antenna movement relative to the target as potential sources of error. The results of this initial study provide strong motivation for further research into this timely application, particularly in the context of an ageing population.
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F. Krewer, F. Krewer, F. Morgan, F. Morgan, E. Jones, E. Jones, M. Glavin, M. Glavin, M. O'Halloran, M. O'Halloran, } "Development of a wearable microwave bladder monitor for the management and treatment of urinary incontinence", Proc. SPIE 9077, Radar Sensor Technology XVIII, 90770X (29 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2049689; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2049689
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