21 May 2014 Miniaturized imaging spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot MOEMS filters and HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays
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Abstract
Imaging spectrometry can be utilized in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) bands to detect, identify and map complex chemical agents based on their rotational and vibrational emission spectra. Hyperspectral datasets are typically obtained using grating or Fourier transform spectrometers to separate the incoming light into spectral bands. At present, these spectrometers are large, cumbersome, slow and expensive, and their resolution is limited by bulky mechanical components such as mirrors and gratings. As such, low-cost, miniaturized imaging spectrometers are of great interest. Microfabrication of micro-electro-mechanicalsystems (MEMS)-based components opens the door for producing low-cost, reliable optical systems. We present here our work on developing a miniaturized IR imaging spectrometer by coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe)-based infrared focal plane array (FPA) with a MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter (FPF). The two membranes are fabricated from silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafers using bulk micromachining technology. The fixed membrane is a standard silicon membrane, fabricated using back etching processes. The movable membrane is implemented as an X-beam structure to improve mechanical stability. The geometries of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-based tunable FPFs are modeled to achieve the desired spectral resolution and wavelength range. Additionally, acceptable fabrication tolerances are determined by modeling the spectral performance of the FPFs as a function of DBR surface roughness and membrane curvature. These fabrication non-idealities are then mitigated by developing an optimized DBR process flow yielding high-performance FPF cavities. Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) and Germanium (Ge) are chosen as the low and the high index materials, respectively, and are deposited using an electron beam process. Simulations are presented showing the impact of these changes and non-idealities in both a device and systems level.
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S. Velicu, C. Buurma, J. D. Bergeson, Tae Sung Kim, J. Kubby, N. Gupta, "Miniaturized imaging spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot MOEMS filters and HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays", Proc. SPIE 9100, Image Sensing Technologies: Materials, Devices, Systems, and Applications, 91000F (21 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2053902; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2053902
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