21 May 2014 Detection of chemical warfare simulants using Raman excitation at 1064 nm
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Abstract
Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for material identification. The technique is sensitive to primary and higher ordered molecular structure and can be used to identify unknown materials by comparison with spectral reference libraries. Additionally, miniaturization of opto-electronic components has permitted development of portable Raman analyzers that are field deployable. Raman scattering is a relatively weak effect compared to a competing phenomenon, fluorescence. Even a moderate amount of fluorescence background interference can easily prevent identification of unknown materials. A long wavelength Raman system is less likely to induce fluorescence from a wider variety of materials than a higher energy visible laser system. Compounds such as methyl salicylate (MS), diethyl malonate (DEM), and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) are used as chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants for development of analytical detection strategies. Field detection of these simulants however poses unique challenges because threat identification must be made quickly without the turnaround time usually required for a laboratory based analysis. Fortunately, these CWA simulants are good Raman scatterers, and field based detection using portable Raman instruments is promising. Measurements of the CWA simulants were done using a 1064 nm based portable Raman spectrometer. The longer wavelength excitation laser was chosen relative to a visible based laser systems because the 1064 nm based spectrometer is less likely to induce fluorescence and more suitable to a wider range of materials. To more closely mimic real world measurement situations, different sample presentations were investigated.
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Claire Dentinger, Claire Dentinger, Mark W. Mabry, Mark W. Mabry, Eric G. Roy, Eric G. Roy, } "Detection of chemical warfare simulants using Raman excitation at 1064 nm", Proc. SPIE 9101, Next-Generation Spectroscopic Technologies VII, 91010T (21 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2055212; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2055212
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