22 May 2014 Hyper-entanglement based sensor with reduced measurement time and enhanced signal to interference ratio
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Abstract
An array of hyper-entanglement based sensors made up of quantum hyper-entangled systems will be considered. Each hyper-entangled system will consists of a single hyper-entangled signal and single ancilla photon. The effect of noise in every mode as well as loss is included. The signal photon will experience classical loss and each ancilla photon will suffer a low level of loss. Forming an array offers the further advantage of a greater reduction in measurement time. It is shown mathematically that in the large d limit, where d is the number of modes, that different members of the array do not interfere with each other implying they can be put close together. This permits an enormous reduction in the measurement time, i.e. the time-on-target. Each hyper-entangled system making up the array receives a factor of d improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) and a factor of d reduction in measurement time. If M measurements are needed for a given level of resolution or decision quality then instead of having one hyper-entanglement pair, M hyper-entanglement pairs can be used. Unlike a classical radar or ladar, this system can image a target essentially with a snapshot from the many photon sources making up the array. Closed form results for the wave function, reduced density operator, gamma-expansion, probability of detection, probability of false alarm, SNR, SIR, Quantum Fisher information (QFI), quantum-Cramer-Rao lower bound (QCRLB), quantum Chernoff bound (QCB), and estimates for the number of required measurements are provided.
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James F. Smith, "Hyper-entanglement based sensor with reduced measurement time and enhanced signal to interference ratio", Proc. SPIE 9123, Quantum Information and Computation XII, 91230L (22 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2048688; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2048688
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