2 May 2014 Negative index fishnet structures with nanopillars formed by nanoimprint lithography
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Since their inception, metamaterial fishnet structures have frequently been used to exhibit a negative refractive index. Their shape and structure make it possible to independently produce both a negative permeability (μ) and a negative permittivity (ε). Fishnets that display this characteristic can be referred to as a double negative metamaterial. Although other techniques have been demonstrated, fishnets are commonly fabricated using electron-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion-beam (FIB) milling. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of fishnets using nano-imprint lithography (NIL). Advantages associated with NIL include a shorter fabrication time, a larger feasible pattern area and reduced costs. In addition to these advantages, the quality of the fabricated structures is excellent. We imprint a stamp directly into a metal-dielectric-metal stack which creates the fishnet and, as an artifact of the technique, a periodic array of nanopillars. Two different designs of the fishnet and nanopillar structure have been fabricated and optical measurements have been taken from both. In addition to the experimental measurements the structures have also been extensively simulated, suggesting a negative refractive index with a real part as large in magnitude as five can be achieved.
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Graham J. Sharp, Graham J. Sharp, Saima I. Khan, Saima I. Khan, Ali Z. Khokhar, Ali Z. Khokhar, Richard M. De La Rue, Richard M. De La Rue, Nigel P. Johnson, Nigel P. Johnson, "Negative index fishnet structures with nanopillars formed by nanoimprint lithography", Proc. SPIE 9125, Metamaterials IX, 91251A (2 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2052153; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2052153

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