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2 May 2014 Surface plasmon amplification without inversion in plasmonic nanogaps
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The theory of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) amplification in the metal-insulator-metal structure is developed from first principles. Basing on the dyadic Green’s function of the structure, an exact analytical expression for the gain coefficient is derived. It is shown that the amplification can occur without a population inversion and can reach giant (∼ 106 cm−1) values. The physical origin of this effect is associated with a positive feedback provided by the reflecting waveguide walls that does not require an external pumping. It is also predicted that the same physical phenomenon can lead to SPP generation and the corresponding threshold condition is obtained. It is stressed that such an effect does not imply stimulated emission in the structure and is principally different from SPASER.
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Vladimir G. Bordo "Surface plasmon amplification without inversion in plasmonic nanogaps", Proc. SPIE 9126, Nanophotonics V, 91260W (2 May 2014);

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