1 May 2014 Detectability of penetration depth based on weld pool geometry and process emission spectrum in laser welding of copper
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Laser welding is a promising joining process for copper interconnections. A key criterion of quality for these welds is the penetration depth. The penetration depth is subject to intrinsic variation, i.e. by the nature of the welding process. Online detection of penetration depth enables quality assurance and furthermore welding of joint configurations with tighter tolerances via closed-loop control. Weld pool geometry and keyhole optical emission in the wavelength interval of 400-1100 nm are investigated with regard to how suitable they are for the detection of penetration depth in laser welding of copper Cu-ETP. Different penetration depths were induced by stepwise modulation of laser power in bead-on-plate welds. The welds have been monitored with illuminated high-speed videography of the work piece surface and spectrometry. Increase of the weld pool length (in direction of travel) corresponding to increase in penetration depth has been observed while no noticeable change was observed of the weld pool width (transverse to the direction of travel). No significant lines were observed in the spectrum. The radiant power in VIS-spectrum was observed to increase with increasing penetration depth as well. As future work, with increasing understanding and experimental data, online monitoring by indirectly measuring the penetration depth would be possible. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 260153 (QCOALA: Quality Control for Aluminium Laser-Welded Assemblies).
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Alp Özmert, Alp Özmert, Paul Neisser-Deiters, Paul Neisser-Deiters, Alexander Drenker, Alexander Drenker, "Detectability of penetration depth based on weld pool geometry and process emission spectrum in laser welding of copper", Proc. SPIE 9135, Laser Sources and Applications II, 91351W (1 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2051662; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2051662

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