15 May 2014 Photon management with luminescent materials and photonic structures
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Abstract
Upconversion of sub-band-gap photons is a promising approach to increase the efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, we review the recent progress in upconverter material development and realization of efficient upconverter silicon solar cell devices. Current published record values for the increase in the short-circuit current density due to upconversion are 13.1 mA/cm2 at a solar concentration of 210 suns determined in a sun simulator measurement. This increase is equivalent to a relative efficiency enhancement of 0.19% for the silicon solar cell. Although this is a considerable enhancement by more than one order of magnitude from values published only a few years ago, further enhancement of the upconversion performance is necessary. To this end, we investigate theoretically the application of resonant cavity and grating photonic structures. Our simulation based analysis considers irradiance enhancement and modified density of photon states due to the photonic structures and their impact on the upconversion dynamics in β-NaYF4: 20%Er3+. It shows that an optimized grating can increase upconversion luminescence by a factor of 3 averaged over the whole structure in comparison to an unstructured reference with the same amount of upconverter material.
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J. C. Goldschmidt, S. Fischer, Benjamin Fröhlich, J. Gutmann, B. Herter, C. Hofmann, J. Löffler, Frank C. J. M. van Veggel, S. Wolf, "Photon management with luminescent materials and photonic structures", Proc. SPIE 9140, Photonics for Solar Energy Systems V, 91400G (15 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2052507; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2052507
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