But the challenge of fabricating truly aspheric Wolter type molding dies, which are capable of highly accurate angular resolution (below 5 arcs), remains very expensive and time consuming. In this paper, three methods for producing X-ray optic molding dies are presented. Each method uses a different substrate material and process chain, as follows: electroless nickel plated aluminum (first diamond turned then correctively polished), fused silica (first precision ground then correctively polished), and CVD silicon carbide (which can be finished entirely with a newly developed Shape Adaptive Grinding process). The process chains employed for each method are explained in details, and their relative merits discussed. A way forward for the next generation of X-ray telescopes after ASTRO-H is then drawn out.
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Yoshiharu Namba, Anthony Beaucamp, Hironori Matsumoto, Keisuke Tamura, Yuzuru Tawara, Hideyo Kunieda, Tadayuki Takahashi, "Manufacture of aspherical molding dies for x-ray telescopes after ASTRO-H," Proc. SPIE 9144, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 91444F (24 July 2014);