23 July 2014 Optimization of kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter and submillimeter wave detection
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Abstract
We present the latest improvements of lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) for the NIKA camera at the 30-m telescope of IRAM at Pico Veleta (Spain) [1]. LEKIDs are direct absorption detectors for millimeter wavelength and represent a particularly efficient concept of planar array continuum detectors for the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range. To improve the detector radiation coupling over a wider frequency range, a combination of backplane reflector and a supplementary layer of dielectric between silicon substrate and backplane has been successfully explored. To this end we apply deep silicon etching to the substrate in order to decrease its effective dielectric constant in an intermediate layer. In the first generation of LEKIDs array, the response is disturbed by the presence of slot-modes in the frequency multiplexing coplanar feed/readout line, an effect which was reduced when applying wire bonding across the readout line. Superconducting air-bridges can be integrated into the array fabrication process. The suppression of slot-modes also reduces undesired cross-talk between pixels. Our current KID detectors are made of very thin aluminum films, but with a thickness of less than 20 nm we have reached some limitations concerning the layout and material processing. Following the results from Leduc et al. [2], we developed non-stoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) at IRAM as an alternative material. We focus on the work done to achieve reproducible and homogenous films with the required transition temperature for mm-wave detection. We present characterization techniques that allow room temperature measurements to be correlated to the transition temperature of TiNx and first measurements on a test sample.
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G. Coiffard, G. Coiffard, K. F. Schuster, K. F. Schuster, A. Monfardini, A. Monfardini, A. Adane, A. Adane, B. Barbier, B. Barbier, C. Boucher, C. Boucher, M. Calvo, M. Calvo, J. Goupy, J. Goupy, S. Leclercq, S. Leclercq, S. Pignard, S. Pignard, } "Optimization of kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter and submillimeter wave detection", Proc. SPIE 9153, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, 91530S (23 July 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2055145; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2055145
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