19 August 2014 The TIME-Pilot intensity mapping experiment
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Abstract
TIME-Pilot is designed to make measurements from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), when the first stars and galaxies formed and ionized the intergalactic medium. This will be done via measurements of the redshifted 157.7 um line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]). In particular, TIME-Pilot will produce the first detection of [CII] clustering fluctuations, a signal proportional to the integrated [CII] intensity, summed over all EoR galaxies. TIME-Pilot is thus sensitive to the emission from dwarf galaxies, thought to be responsible for the balance of ionizing UV photons, that will be difficult to detect individually with JWST and ALMA. A detection of [CII] clustering fluctuations would validate current theoretical estimates of the [CII] line as a new cosmological observable, opening the door for a new generation of instruments with advanced technology spectroscopic array focal planes that will map [CII] fluctuations to probe the EoR history of star formation, bubble size, and ionization state. Additionally, TIME-Pilot will produce high signal-to-noise measurements of CO clustering fluctuations, which trace the role of molecular gas in star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2. With its unique atmospheric noise mitigation, TIME-Pilot also significantly improves sensitivity for measuring the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (kSZ) effect in galaxy clusters. TIME-Pilot will employ a linear array of spectrometers, each consisting of a parallel-plate diffraction grating. The spectrometer bandwidth covers 185-323 GHz to both probe the entire redshift range of interest and to include channels at the edges of the band for atmospheric noise mitigation. We illuminate the telescope with f/3 horns, which balances the desire to both couple to the sky with the best efficiency per beam, and to pack a large number of horns into the fixed field of view. Feedhorns couple radiation to the waveguide spectrometer gratings. Each spectrometer grating has 190 facets and provides resolving power above 100. At this resolution, the longest dimension of the grating is 31 cm, which allows us to stack gratings in two blocks (one for each polarization) of 16 within a single cryostat, providing a 1x16 array of beams in a 14 arcminute field of view. Direct absorber TES sensors sit at the output of the grating on six linear facets over the output arc, allowing us to package and read out the detectors as arrays in a modular manner. The 1840 detectors will be read out with the NIST time-domain-multiplexing (TDM) scheme and cooled to a base temperature of 250 mK with a 3He sorption refrigerator. We present preliminary designs for the TIME-Pilot cryogenics, spectrometers, bolometers, and optics.
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A. T. Crites, J. J. Bock, C. M. Bradford, T. C. Chang, A. R. Cooray, L. Duband, Y. Gong, S. Hailey-Dunsheath, J. Hunacek, P. M. Koch, C. T. Li, R. C. O'Brient, T. Prouve, E. Shirokoff, M. B. Silva, Z. Staniszewski, B. Uzgil, M. Zemcov, "The TIME-Pilot intensity mapping experiment", Proc. SPIE 9153, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, 91531W (19 August 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2057207; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2057207
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