23 July 2014 Dynamic range of fully depleted pnCCDs: modeling and experimental confirmation
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Abstract
pnCCDs are a special type of charge coupled device (CCD) which were originally developed for applications in X-ray astronomy. At X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) pnCCDs are used as imaging X-ray spectrometers due to their outstanding characteristics like high readout speed, high and homogenous quantum efficiency, low readout noise, radiation hardness and a high pixel charge handling capacity. With pnCCDs it is possible to separate one photon from no photon and two photons as well as being able to measure up to up to 104 photons per pixel per frame. However, extremely high photon intensities can result in pixel saturation and charge spilling into neighboring pixels. Because of this charge blooming effect, spatial information is reduced. Due to the deep understanding of the internal potential distribution we can enhance the pixel full well capacity even more and improve the quality of the image. This paper describes the influence of the operation voltages and space charge distribution of the pnCCD on the electric potential profile by using 2D numerical device simulations. Experimental results with signal injection from an optical laser confirm the simulation models.
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Julia Schmidt, Julia Schmidt, Robert Hartmann, Robert Hartmann, Peter Holl, Peter Holl, Martin Huth, Martin Huth, Gerhard Lutz, Gerhard Lutz, Jakob Soltau, Jakob Soltau, Daniel Steigenhöfer, Daniel Steigenhöfer, Heike Soltau, Heike Soltau, Lothar Strüder, Lothar Strüder, } "Dynamic range of fully depleted pnCCDs: modeling and experimental confirmation", Proc. SPIE 9154, High Energy, Optical, and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy VI, 91540I (23 July 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2055343; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2055343
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