19 May 2014 Modulated alignment dual-axis (MAD) confocal microscopy for deep optical sectioning in tissues
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A strategy is presented to enable optical-sectioning microscopy with improved contrast and imaging depth using low-power (0.5 mW) diode laser illumination. While the DAC architecture’s intersecting illumination and collection beams significantly improves the spatial-filtering and opticalsectioning performance of confocal microscopy, we propose that modulating the spatial alignment of the dual-axis beams at a frequency f, such the focal volume signal of the microscope is modulated at 2f, further provides nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement in optical-sectioning contrast. Lock-in detection is used to remove the unmodulated background light, thereby enhancing our ability to image deeply within highly scattering tissues.
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Steven Y. Leigh, Steven Y. Leigh, Ye Chen, Ye Chen, Jonathan T. C. Liu, Jonathan T. C. Liu, "Modulated alignment dual-axis (MAD) confocal microscopy for deep optical sectioning in tissues", Proc. SPIE 9155, Translational Biophotonics, 915513 (19 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2057734; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2057734

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