16 September 2014 Electromagnetic force and torque in Lorentz and Einstein-Laub formulations
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The Lorentz force law of classical electrodynamics requires the introduction of hidden energy and hidden momentum in situations where an electric field acts on a magnetic material. In contrast, the Einstein-Laub formulation does not invoke hidden entities. The total force and torque exerted by electromagnetic fields on a given object are independent of whether the force and torque densities are evaluated using the law of Lorentz or that of Einstein and Laub. Hidden entities aside, the two formulations differ only in their predicted force and torque distributions throughout material media.
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Masud Mansuripur, Masud Mansuripur, } "Electromagnetic force and torque in Lorentz and Einstein-Laub formulations", Proc. SPIE 9164, Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation XI, 91640B (16 September 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2060554; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2060554

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