10 September 2014 Optical impedance transformer for transparent conducting electrodes
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We present a practical and robust concept to bypass the typical trade-off between optical transparency and electrical conductivity of transparent conducting electrodes. A transparent conducting electrode serves to transmit photons and conduct electrons, and the frequencies of the corresponding optical and dc electric fields differ by at least 12 orders of magnitude. Therefore, we could engineer the optical electric field to influence the optical property, which is not intrinsic, of the transparent electrode without sacrificing its electrical performance. For a given light power input, the optical impedance transformer reduces the loss in a transparent electrode by raising the refractive index of its surrounding medium. The concept of optical impedance transformer can be realized by nanocone arrays, and we use it to design nanophotonic structures that provide broadband and omnidirectional reduction of optical loss in an ultrathin graphene electrode. In addition, the concept applies to thicker or nanostructured transparent electrodes. The results are verified against first-principles full-field electromagnetic simulations.
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Ken X. Wang, Ken X. Wang, Jessica R. Piper, Jessica R. Piper, Shanhui Fan, Shanhui Fan, "Optical impedance transformer for transparent conducting electrodes", Proc. SPIE 9168, Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Associated Devices VII, 916804 (10 September 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2061159; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2061159

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