7 October 2014 Synchronized thermography for multi-layer thin film characterization
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Organic solar cells and organic LEDs are typically made of conductive and semi-conductive thin films. The uniformity requirement for these films is exceptionally high. In the case of multi-layer structures, surface characterization based methods (e.g. profilometer, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope) encounter certain challenges when attempting to detect the defects inside the structure. One way to overcome this drawback is by using synchronized thermography (ST). In this work ST is used to study multi-layered thin film structures. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) was used as an example of conductive thin film and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiopene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used as an example of a hole transporting layer. Uniformity differences were generated in these layers and ST was used to detect them. The results show that ST is capable of localizing small defects in the stack using a single infrared (IR) image. It can often be deduced from the same image in which layer the defect is located. This shows that ST is capable of profiling the structures of multi-layer thin films.
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Kimmo Leppänen, Kimmo Leppänen, Juha Saarela, Juha Saarela, Tapio Fabritius, Tapio Fabritius, "Synchronized thermography for multi-layer thin film characterization", Proc. SPIE 9177, Thin Films for Solar and Energy Technology VI, 917705 (7 October 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2060804; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2060804

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